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In high-prevalence countries, tuberculosis can be difficult to diagnose and remains a leading cause of death among HIV-infected patients, especially in cases of profound immune suppression. Despite the initiation of HAART, many patients die within the first months of treatment. The STATIS (Systematic vs. Test-guided Antituberculosis Treatment Impact in Severely immuno-suppressed HIV-infected adults initiating antiretroviral therapy with CD4 cell counts <100/mm3) is a randomized controlled trial aiming to compare two experimental strategies to reduce the mortality and the occurrence of severe bacterial infection (incl. TB) at 6 months in severely immunosuppressed adults infected with HIV (CD4 < 100/mm3): 1/ a strategy for intensive screening and repeated tuberculosis through workable tests during the day (Xpert MTB / RIF, LAM urinary, chest radiography); and, 2/ a simple strategy of systematic empirical anti -tuberculosis treatment initiated two weeks before the start of HAART. STATIS will also compare the occurrence of severe illness (AIDS, severe non-AIDS diseases, IRIS, adverse events grade 3 or 4), the number of lost to follow-up, healthcare costs, immuno- virological efficacy of ARVs , the efficacy and tolerance of TB and drug resistance and the cost-effectiveness study strategies. This study is conducted in collaboration with Sihanouk Hospital Center of Hope, NCHADS and CENAT and has obtained ethical approval from the National Ethics Committee in Cambodia. Inclusions of patients started in January 2015 and both inclusions and follow-up of patients are ongoing.