អគារលេខ៥ មហាវិថីមុនីវង្ស ប្រអប់សំបុត្រលេខ ៩៨៣ ភ្នំពេញ ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា accueil@pasteur-kh.org

កែប្រែចុងក្រោយថ្ងៃទី៦ ខែធ្នូ ឆ្នាំ២០១៦


 

Laboratory of Food Microbiology and Water Analysis

(LFMWA)

 

 

I. MICROBIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

1.1 Individual parameters

1.1.1 Food samples

 

CODAT code

Paremeters

International Reference

1

ATPC

Culturable microorganisms at 30°C

NF EN ISO 4833-1

2

EBAC

Bacillus cereus

NF EN ISO 7932

3

FCMP

Campylobacter​​ spp

NF EN ISO 10272

4

FCLP

Clostridium perfringens

ISO 7937

5

ACOL

Coliforms

NF ISO 4832

6

ECF

Thermolerant coliforms

NF V08-060

7

FENT

Enterobacteria

NF ISO 21528

8

AECO

Escherichia coli

NF ISO 16649

9

AFON

Yeast and molds

ISO 7954

10

FLMN

Listeria spp

ISO 11290

11

ASAL

Salmonella

NF EN ISO 6579

12

FSTH

Spore of thermophilic aerobes

GUIRAUD-1998

13

FSNT

Spore of thermophilic anaerobes

GUIRAUD-1998

14

ASAU

Staphylococcus aureus

NF EN ISO 6888-1

 

1.1.2 Water samples

 

CODAT

Code

Parameters

International Reference

1

ETAC

Culturable microorganisms at 22°C and 37°C

NF EN ISO 6222

2

ECT

Coliform bacteria​​ 

NF EN ISO 9308-1

3

EECO

Escherichia coli

NF EN ISO 9308-1

4

ECF

Fecal coliforms​​ 

 

5

ESTF

Intestinal enterococci

NF EN ISO 7899

6

EASR

Spores of sulfite reducing anaerobes​​ 

NF T90-415

7

EPSE

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

NF EN ISO 16266

8

SMNL

Salmonella

ISO 6340

9

STPL

Staphylococcus aureus

NF T90-421

10

LGNL

Legionella

NF T90-431

 

1.2 Standard analysis in food and water samples

 

CODAT

Code

Type of Analysis

Description

1

EPAB

Drinking water

Cultivable microorganisms at 22°C and 37°C, spores of sulfite reducing anaerobes, coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli, Intestinal enterococci​​ 

2

EPAP

Swimming pool water

Cultivable microorganisms at 22°C and 37°C, spores of sulfite reducing anaerobes, coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli, Intestinal enterococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus​​ 

3

EPAE

Bottled waters​​ 

Cultivable microorganisms at 22°C and 37°C, spores of sulfite reducing anaerobes, coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli, Intestinal enterococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa

4

ALIT

Food​​ 

Cultivable microorganisms at 30°C, coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella

5

SURA

Work surface in ​​ food production area

Enterobacteria, Yeast and Moulds

 

2. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL ANALYSIS

2.1 Individual parameters

No

CODAT Code

Parameters

Symbol

Quality Limit

(2007)

Unit

1

EALU

Aluminum

Al

0,2

mg/l

2

EAS

Arsenic

As

0.01

mg/l

3

EAMM

Ammonium*

NH4+

0.5

mg/l

4

AN2

Total Nitrogen​​ 

N2

2

mg/l

5

EBRO

Bromide

Br-

0.4

mg/l

6

ECD

Cadmium

Cd

0.003

mg/l

7

ECAL

Calcium

Ca

100

mg/l

8

ECHL

Total chlorine

Cl2

0.2

mg/l

9

ECL2

Free chlorine

Cl­2

0.1 Rodier

(p1007)

mg/l

10

ECL

Chloride*

Cl-

250

mg/l

11

ECR

Chromium

Cr

0.05

mg/l

12

ECOU

Color

-

15

mg/l Pt

13

ECDT

Conductivity

-

-

µs/cm

14

ECU

Copper

Cu

1

mg/l

15

ECN

Cyanide

CN-

0.07

mg/l

16

EDCO

Chemical demand of O2

DCO

30

mg/l

17

EDUR

Total hardness*

CaCO3

300

mg/lCaCO3

18

EFER

Iron*

Fe

0.2

mg/l

19

EF

Fluoride

F-

5

mg/l

20

EMG

Magnesium

Mg

50

mg/l

21

EMN

Manganese

Mn

0.5

mg/l

22

ENI

Nickel

Ni

0.02

mg/l

23

ENO3

Nitrate*

NO3-

50

mg/l

24

ENO2

Nitrite*

NO2-

0.1

mg/l

25

EPH

​​ pH(25ºC)*

pH

6.5-9

 

26

EPO4

Phosphate

PO43-

5

mg/l

27

EPB

Lead

Pb

0.01

mg/l

28

EK

Potassium

K

12

mg/l

29

ESAL

Salinity

-

-

ppt

30

ENA

Sodium

Na

175

mg/l

31

ESO4

Sulfates

SO42-

250

mg/l

32

ESO3

Sulfite

SO2

0

mg/l

33

ESUS

Total suspended solid, TSS

-

-

mg/l

34

ETDS

Total dissolved solid, TDS

-

-

mg/l

35

ETUR

Turbidity*

-

2

NTU*

36

EZN

Zinc

Zn

5

mg/l

 

2.2 Standard analysis in water samples

 

No

CODAT code

Type of Analysis

Description

 ​​ ​​​​ 1

EPAC

Drinking water

Turbidity, pH, Chloride, Ammonium, Nitrites, Nitrates, Total Hardness and Iron

 ​​ ​​​​ 2

EESA

Bottled water

Turbidity, pH, Chloride, Ammonium, Nitrites, Nitrates, Total Hardness and Iron

 ​​ ​​​​ 3

ESCA

Swimming pool water

Turbidity, pH, Chloride, Ammonium, Nitrites, Nitrates, Total Hardness, Iron, Total Chlorine, Free Chlorine

 

3. COMBINED STANDARD ANALYSIS OF WATER SAMPLES

 

No

CODAT code

Type of analyses

Description

 ​​ ​​​​ 1

EPAR

Drinking water

Cultivable bacteria at 22°C and 37°C, spores of sulfite-reducing anaerobes, coliforms bacteria,​​ Escherichia coli,​​ Intestinal enterococci

 

Turbidity, pH, chloride, ammonium, nitrites, nitrates, total hardness and iron

 ​​ ​​​​ 2

EPIS

Swimming pool water

Cultivable bacteria at 22°C and 37°C, spores of sulfite-reducing anaerobes, coliform bacteria,​​ Escherichia coli,​​ Intestinal enterococci,​​ Pseudomonas aeruginosa,​​ Staphylococcus aureus

 

Turbidity, pH, Chloride, Ammonium, Nitrites, Nitrates, Total Hardness, Iron, Total Chlorine, Free Chlorine

 ​​ ​​​​ 3

EEBC

bottled water

Cultivable bacteria at 22°C and 37°C, Spores of sulfite reducing anaerobes, coliform bacteria, Intestinal enterococci,​​ Escherichia coli,​​ Pseudomonas aeruginosa

 

Turbidity, pH, Chloride, Ammonium, Nitrites, Nitrates, Total Hardness and Iron

 

4. PARASITES IN WATER

 

No

CODAT code

Parameter

International Reference

1

EPRS

Enumeration of helminth eggs​​ in water

Bailenger method

2

PVE

Enumeration of helminth eggs​​ in vegetables

Bailenger method

 

5. Recommendations

 

Recommendation concerning the conditions of sampling, packaging and transportation of water samples for microbiological analysis. These recommendations are in accordance of the following international standards:

- NF EN ISO 5667-3: Preservation and handling of water samples

- NF EN ISO 19458: Sampling for water analysis

- FD T90-520: Guide technique de prélèvement pour le suivi sanitaire des eaux en application du code de la Santé Publique (réglementation française)

 

5.1​​ General recommendations

 

- The customer must make an appointment with the laboratory specifying the type of water analysis and microbiological parameters requested.

- Written guidelines/procedures/methodology in Khmer and in English to collect the samples and recommendations for their storage/transportation are available in the LFMWA and could be requested by the customers at the Lab reception.

Sterile vials for single use polyethylene are available for samples with a capacity ranging from 500 ml, 1000 ml to 2000 ml. – these bottles are added or not of sodium thiosulfate to a final concentration of 20 mg/l.

- Container labels should withstand wetting, drying and freezing without detaching or becoming illegible. The labelling system shall be waterproof to allow use on site.

- The exact information given in the sampling report and on the sample labels depends on the objectives of the particular measurement program. In all cases, an indelible label shall be secured to the sample container. For each sample, at least the following information shall be available.

— date, time and location of sampling

— sample number

— description of sample

— name of sampling personnel

— details of sample preservation, or fixation used;

— details of sample storage used

— any information regarding integrity and manipulation of the sample;

— any other information, as necessary

__ a unique identifier, traceable to sample date, location, and sample number shall appear on the label of the sample container

__ all other information are supplementary and should be detailed in the sample report

 

5.2 Conditions of transport and storage

 

- Keep the time between sampling and analysis in the laboratory as short as possible. For drinking waters.

- Analysis should ideally be started within the same working day.

- Cool samples — ideally (3-5) °C — during transport (e.g. by using ice packs or melting ice), unless otherwise stated in specific standards. Take care not to freeze them (except for viruses). Protect samples from Sunlight.

- For samples transported for periods over 8 h, it is necessary to monitor and record the temperature.

For samples transported for periods over 8 h, it is necessary to monitor and record the temperature.

Transport conditions shall be documented. Nevertheless be careful:

​​ not to put ice-packs in direct contact with the sample, as this can result in freezing it.

​​ to adjust the number, volume and position of ice packs according to samples number, mass and initial temperature.

Document the procedure required for longer transport times (8 h).

- Warm and cold samples shall be transported separately.

 

5.3 Delivery time of samples to the laboratory

 

- The following table provides a chart of recommendations for the maximum period of delivery. The times listed are estimates: they depend on the type of water, the physiological state of microorganisms (eg disinfection or not) and the methods.

- In case of delay exceeding the recommended time of delivery, the results must be interpreted carefully and subject to control by another analysis.

 

 

Recommended (R)​​ &​​ acceptable (A) values

For maximum sample storage times​​ including transport time

&​​ temperatures unless otherwise specified in specific standards

 

 

Maximum sample storage time

(h) including transport

 

Storage water temperature (°C)

 

 

Observation

R

A

R

A

 

 

General

Culturable microorganisms (22, 30 or 36 °C)

 

 

8

 

12

 

5+3 °C

 

 

Faecal indicators, vegetative bacteria

- E. coli (and coliform bacteria)

- Enterococci

- Clostridium perfringens (vegetative cells)

 

 

12

 

 

18

 

 

5+3°C

 

 

Spores

Spores of sulfite-reducing bacteria

(Clostridium spp.)

 

24

 

72

 

5+3°C​​ 

 

Die-off observed in raw waters after 24 h

Viruses

Bacteriophages

 

48

 

72

 

5+3°C

 

 

Faecal pathogens

Salmonella spp. and other Enterobacteriaceae

 

Cryptosporidium oocysts

 

Giardia cysts​​ 

 

12

 

24

 

24

 

18

 

96

 

96

 

5+3°C​​ 

 

5+3°C​​ 

 

5+3°C​​ 

 

 

 

Ambient

 

 

 

Other microorganisms

Amoebae

 

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

 

 

Legionella spp.

 

 

 

Helminth eggs

 

24

 

8

 

 

24

 

 

 

48

 

96

 

12

 

 

 

 

48

 

72

 

1 week

 

5+3°C​​ 

 

Ambient

 

 

5+3°C​​ 

 

5+3°C

 

5+3°C​​ 

 

5+3°C​​ 

 

 

 

 

5 -3°C

 

 

Ambient

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sample stabilized at pH = 2