A Zoonosis is an animal disease, due to bacteria, viruses, parasites, or fungi that can be transmitted to humans, when Animal or human are in contact. It is considered that 80% of human diseases are actually zoonosis. Several of them are transmitted by blood sucking arthropod vectors. Zoonosis can be:
Viral diseases : Rabies, Avian influenza, Japanese encephalitis, Zika, Chikungunya, Hepatitis E, Coronavirus disease, Nipah, Arenavirus diseases, all present in Cambodia, but also Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Rift Valley fever, Ebola, transmitted on other continents
Bacterial diseases : Salmonellosis, Campylobacteriosis, Anthrax, Brucellosis, Leptospirosis, Plague, Q Fever, Shigellosis, Tularaemia, Bovine Tuberculosis.
Parasitosis : Cysticercosis, Taeniasis , Trematodosis, Echinococcosis/Hydatidosis, Toxoplasmosis, Trichinellosis, Chagas disease, some Malaria form (Plasmodium knowlesi)
Fungal diseases : Dermatophytoses, Sporotrichosis
In Cambodia very few information are available on the diseases transmitted at the human – animal interface interface. At IPC most data has been obtained in the frame of several “one Health” projects targeting domestic (Rabies and dogs, Avian influenza and poultries) or wild animals, like Lacanet and Predict projects. Nipah disease and Leptospirosis are of particular interest in cambodia.
Nipah virus (NiV) is a member of the family Paramyxoviridae, genus Henipavirus. NiV was initially isolated and identified in 1999 during an outbreak of encephalitis and respiratory illness among pig farmers and people with close contact with pigs in Malaysia and Singapore. 105 people died. More than1 million pigs were culled to stop the spread. The reservoir of this virus are Flying Foxes species (Pteropus sp), bats eating fruits.
Transmission of Nipah virus to humans may occur after direct contact with infected bats, infected pigs, or from other NiV infected people. Infection with Nipah virus is associated with encephalitis. During the Nipah virus disease outbreak in 1998-99, 265 patients were infected with the virus. About 40% of those patients who entered hospitals with serious nervous disease died from the illness
Nipah virus is circulating in Cambodia. In the framework of the ComAcross project (funded by EuropeAid) and the TeleNipah project (funded by the CNES) several studies have been implemented by IPC, in collaboration with CIRAD, to assess the risk of Nipah virus spill-over from bat to humans and domestic animals since 2012.
At present there is no foci or epidemic due to the Nipah virus in Cambodia, unlike in other Asian countries, but surveillance still continues.
Leptospirosis is caused by a pathogenic spirochetes of the genus Leptospira. Humans can become infected through contact with urine (or other body fluids, except saliva) from infected animals, mainly rodents, or contact with water, soil, or food contaminated with the urine of infected animals. Without treatment, Leptospirosis can lead to kidney damage, meningitis (inflammation of the membrane around the brain and spinal cord), liver failure, respiratory distress, and even death.
Although few studies have been conducted, Cambodia appears to be a country of high incidence (with more than 10 cases/100,000 persons). Of the patients hospitalized with clinical symptoms compatible with leptospirosis in the province of Takeo, 29.9% were positive for Leptospira biological markers, IgM antibodies, and/or DNA. From 2007 to 2009, the Institut Pasteur du Cambodge (IPC) conducted community-based surveillance for febrile illnesses, in Kampong Cham province. A sample of 2,359 fever cases was tested for Leptospira IgM. One hundred people were found positive. This definitely demonstrates that Leptospirosis is a public health concern in Cambodia. Another study aimed identify the rodent species that may act as reservoirs of Leptospira spp. and the environmental characteristics favorable for transmission in Cambodia